Bangladesh is density populated country. Hear Pollution has become the first enemy of the human race. Industrial revolution of 19th century led to environmental disaster. Which is increase day by day. The whole world is now more afraid of pollution rather than nuclear explosion. In the vein of air pollution is a serious environmental health hazard affecting the populations of Bangladesh. Indoor air pollution is mainly associated with the use of biomass fuels during cooking with poor ventilation. On the other hand industrial emissions and automobiles are the principle sources of outdoor air pollution. Now living well within planetary boundaries is the most promising strategy for ensuring a healthy future.
In Bangladesh’s perspective health related problems also prevail in urban areas where we have limited access to safe. The World Health Organization (WHO) says vehicular air pollution is a major cause of respiratory distress in urban Bangladesh. According to the department of environment (DoE), old, poorly serviced vehicles, brick kilns (there are currently about 1,000 in and around Dhaka), dust from roads and construction sites and toxic fumes from industrial sites are major sources of air pollution.
The air consists of common pollutants like sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ground-level ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulphide (H2S), sulphates and nitrates. Additional air pollutants of concern include toxic metals (lead, mercury, manganese, arsenic and nickel), benzene, formaldehyde, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins, and other persistent organic compounds.
According to the Bangladesh’s National Institute of Diseases of Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), nearly 7 (seven) millions of people of total population in Bangladesh suffer from asthma; more than half of them children. Cases of children suffering from bronchitis and chronic coughs have also shot up in recent years.
The Switzerland emerged the least polluted country in 2014. The remainder of the top five in order is Luxembourg, Australia, Singapore and Czech Republic. In mean time death rate grown up four times high than the last four decade. Every year 8 million people die causes of outdoor and indoor air pollution in the world data from WHO report 2015. In added that huge numbers of people attract in disease cause of air pollution. This incident frequently happens in LDC countries and middle income countries like Bangladesh, India and China.
Bangladesh has been ranked 4th (fourth) among 91 countries with worst urban air quality in the latest air pollution monitoring report of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2014. Moreover, three Bangladeshi cities have been put among the top 25 cities with poorest air. The WHO report says that almost 90 percent of people living in the cities are being exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution in the country.
On the other hand outdoor air pollution killed 3.7 million people in 2012 and the WHO says it is now the world’s largest single environmental health risk. In 2010, Bangladesh was ranked 139 in the overall by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). In another study Environmental Performance Index 2012, undertaken by the U.S. universities of Yale and Columbia, found Dhaka to be the 31st most polluted city out of 132 cities across the world.
Bangladesh is the ninth-most polluted country in the world according to the statistics of the global Environmental Performance Index for 2014. Bangladesh has also been listed as the country with the most polluted air quality around the globe in the survey that has been conducted using data from 178 countries.
In Bangladesh the city-wise assessment, Narayanganj has been marked as the 17th city with worst air quality whereas Gazipur and Dhaka have been ranked 21st and 23rd respectively. The report was prepared on the basis of the monthly air quality monitoring data of 2013 of the Department of Environment (DoE), Bangladesh.
At present the DoE has set up air quality monitoring stations in eight cities, including Dhaka, Narayanganj, Gazipur, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Khulna and Sylhet. Though Narayanganj has the highest level of gaseous pollutants, the report shows the air of the northern metropolis Rajshahi contains the highest level of dust particles. Nauseating air pollution in the Bangladesh capital annually kills thousands of urban poor and millions more suffer from respiratory diseases, a burden on inadequate health budget.
The Ministry of Environment and Forests says that vehicles in Dhaka move 14kmph on an average, which is very slow and causes them to burn more fuel and contribute to air pollution. They say the average speed could come down to 4kmph by 2025 if things do not improve.
It is predicted that environmental issues have become major concerns due to impact on public health and development of Bangladesh. So, important to create more hospitals and care facilities in closer vicinity to every rural or urban community soon. An improvement in delivery using mobile devices can also help to improve the quality and efficiency of healthcare while reducing the cost for patients. All at once the Government of Bangladesh immediately should call a meeting describes about the current state of air quality, major sources of air pollution, past policies implemented and suggests future strategies to reduce air pollution in Bangladesh.